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Scope is an object that refers to the application model. It is an execution context for expressions. Scopes are arranged in hierarchical structure which mimic the DOM structure of the application. Scopes can watch expressions and propagate events.

The normal flow of a browser receiving an event is that it executes a corresponding JavaScript callback. Once the callback completes the browser re-renders the DOM and returns to waiting for more events.

When the browser calls into JavaScript the code executes outside the Angular execution context, which means that Angular is unaware of model modifications. To properly process model modifications the execution has to enter the Angular execution context using the $apply method. Only model modifications which execute inside the $apply method will be properly accounted for by Angular. For example if a directive listens on DOM events, such as ng-click it must evaluate the expression inside the $apply method.

After evaluating the expression, the $apply method performs a $digest. In the $digest phase the scope examines all of the $watch expressions and compares them with the previous value. This dirty checking is done asynchronously. This means that assignment such as $scope.username=”angular” will not immediately cause a $watch to be notified, instead the $watch notification is delayed until the $digest phase. This delay is desirable, since it coalesces multiple model updates into one $watch notification as well as guarantees that during the $watch notification no other $watches are running. If a $watch changes the value of the model, it will force additional $digest cycle.

Creation

The root scope is created during the application bootstrap by the $injector. During template linking, some directives create new child scopes.

Watcher registration

During template linking directives register watches on the scope. These watches will be used to propagate model values to the DOM.

Model mutation

For mutations to be properly observed, you should make them only within the scope.$apply(). Angular APIs do this implicitly, so no extra $apply call is needed when doing synchronous work in controllers, or asynchronous work with $http, $timeout or $interval services.

Mutation observation

At the end of $apply, Angular performs a $digest cycle on the root scope, which then propagates throughout all child scopes. During the $digest cycle, all $watched expressions or functions are checked for model mutation and if a mutation is detected, the $watch listener is called.

Scope destruction

When child scopes are no longer needed, it is the responsibility of the child scope creator to destroy them via scope.$destroy() API. This will stop propagation of $digest calls into the child scope and allow for memory used by the child scope models to be reclaimed by the garbage collector.

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